Peace Journalism; phew.

Peace journalism is a fairly new-age concept. Defined by Lynch and McGoldrick (2005) peace journalism is “when editors and reporters make choices – of what to report, and how to report it – that create opportunities for society at large to consider and value non-violent responses to conflict”.

Peace journalism arose from the idea that media coverage of issues was bias towards violent responses to conflict. The concept of ‘Peace journalism’ was proposed by Johan Galtung and promotes the education of journalists and media networks in storytelling techniques that discourage violence. In an age where adolescents are more in-touch with media than every before, it is vital that the media encourages positive reinforcement and non-violent resolutions to conflict.

In order to successfully practice peace journalism, a piece must “show backgrounds and contexts of conflicts; hear from all sides; explore hidden agendas; highlight peace ideas and initiatives” (

Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick use their extensive experience and knowledge not only to teach in Universities across Australia (such as University of Sydney) but also to run “professional training courses for editors and reporters in many countries. These countries include Australia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Nepal, Israel, Georgia and Armenia.” “From 2001 to 2005, Lynch and McGoldrick presented the ideas of peace journalism to professional journalists in British media, in the Reporting the World project, with large emphasis being put on coverage of the ‘war on terrorism’, Iraq and conflicts in South-East Europe, Africa, Indonesia and the Middle East.” (

In a society where conflict is a story appearing every day in the media, Peace journalism is a vital element for encouraging peace in society.

For more information/references, see below:

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Diasporic and Inter-cultural Cinema, the pro’s and the con’s.

Defining diaspora: “diaspora’ is derived from the Greek dia meaning ‘through’, and speirein meaning ‘to scatter’. It embodies the notion of a central home from which the dispersal occurs, and also invokes images of multiple journeys”, stated by Postcolonial theorist Avtar Brah (2003: 616).

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Diasporic and inter-cultural cinema is therefore, cinema that centres around one location but disperses internationally. Fan-bases of Diasporic media are therefore made-up largely of international migrants, as it is a connection to their homeland that is often readily accessible from their new home.

Production of Diasporic cinema is often difficult in considering ethics. Within cinema there is a fine line between representation of culture and mockery of that culture, and this is where problems arise. Although Diasporic media can help cultures understand the values and ethical standards of other cultures, it can also provide audiences with reasons to isolate migrants. For example, if a Bollywood television series aired in the US, social acceptance of Indian migrants among Americans may rise, however Americans may also become more educated about the differences between Western and Indian culture and create discriminative issues as a result. It is important for production of Diasporic media to be well planned and projected into society’s whereby the cinema will discourage cross-cultural discrimination. If consumed correctly, Diasporic media can be an invaluable asset to society worldwide in achieving peace.

Examples of Diasporic media include:

  • Bend it like Beckham
  • Slumdog millionaire
  • Films by Fatih Akin
  • The Saphires

For more information/references:


Diasporic media:

Bend it like Beckham trailer:

Slumdog millionaire trailer:

The Saphires trailer:

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Global Film: Nollywood and Korean Cinema

No, I haven’t made a typo, that is meant to spell “Nollywood”. Haven’t heard of the term before? I hadn’t either, but it turns out that the phrase refers to a genre of cinema you most definitely should be aware of.

Nollywood is simply, a genre of cinema produced in Nigeria. Nollywood is a concept that arose in the early 1990’s and is a more realistic and low-budget equivalent to Hollywood cinema. One major difference between Hollywood and Nollywood is that Nigerian films do not release in a movie theatre-environment, rather release directly as videos.

Much to my surprise, Nollywood is the world’s second largest film industry, producing approximately 2500 films per year, falling just short to the production rate of Bollywood and surpassing that produced by Hollywood.

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Nollywood contrasts Hollywood largely in the purpose of the films produced. Hollywood movies are most often made with the purpose of entertainment and monetary success, where as Nollywood films are most commonly made as a form of expression and ethical protest. Often reflecting current issues within the society producing the film, Nigerian cinema tells stories of current issues among African locals and the struggles of everyday life without glamorizing the scenario as Hollywood film often does.

Recently however, some Nollywood films are demonstrating Western influence, with themes portrayed in a more Hollywood style form of production (i.e. use of more high-tech cinematography and plotline’s swaying from Nigerian values). Western influence changing the film industry is also strongly demonstrated by Korean cinema, which often centres plotlines around themes such as love and social acceptance.

Nollywood produces thousands of films each year, as does Korean cinema. Hollywood making great use of money and technology creates a ‘giant’ appearance, resulting in higher producing however lower-publicized industries (such as Nollywood) being overlooked.

For more information on Nollywood, Korean cinema and a taste of these industries, browse the links below:

Links/ references:

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